Welcome to my blog which is dedicated to sharing and analyzing cardiology trends and information ranging from the basics, all the way to new, cutting edge discoveries. In this site you will find lectures, journal reviews, guidelines, researches, news ,CMEs and articles. Students and professionals alike are invited. I hope you will enjoy reading and sharing your valuable perspectives too. "Dr.Nabil Paktin , MD.,F.A.C.C."
Sunday, January 28, 2018
THE ATHLETE’S ELECTROCARDIOGRAM
Bradyarrhythmias, such as sinus bradycardia greater than 30 beats/min (bpm), sinus arrhythmia, first-degree and second-degree (Mobitz type 1) atrioventricular block, wandering atrial pacemaker, and ectopic atrial rhythm, have been attributed to increased vagal tone following regular physical activity and are common in athletes (Figs. 1 and 2).Increased vagal tone also manifests as ethnic-specific early repolarization changes. White athletes typically show concave ST segment elevation, whereas Afro Caribbean/black athletes show convex ST segment elevation often associated with either biphasic or deep T-wave inversions (TWIs) in V1 to V4.3 Isolated Sokolow-Lyon voltage criteria (combined amplitude of S wave in V1 [SV1] 1 largest R wave in V5 or 6 [RV5/6] ≥3.5 mV, or R wave in aVL ≥1.1 mV) for LVH and incomplete right bundle branch block (RBBB) are recognized manifestations of increased cardiac chamber size and wall thickness and regarded as normal physiologic adaptations in athletes.
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