Pearls about DVT and Pulmonary embolism,
-Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious preventable cause of morbidity & mortality in the world. -DVT & pulmonary embolism (PE) are distinct but related aspects of VTE. Being silent (80% DVT) and difficult to diagnose it poses great challenges in establishing diagnosis.-Higher incidence, underestimation of risk, low level of clinical suspicion, under-used prophylaxis with high fatality has made DVT a world wide cause for concern. -The immediate need of the hour is to have standard guidelines for management of DVT.
MECHANISM :Based on Virchow’s triad; development of D.V.T. is primarily related to the stasis of blood flow, vascular wall damage, activation of clotting system and hypercoaguable state.
Blood passing through the deepest veins in calf or thighs flows relatively slowly than from a solid clot which becomes wedged in the veins.
-Estimates suggest that 60,000-100,000 Americans die of DVT/PE (also called venous 10 to 30% of people will die within one month of diagnosis.-Sudden death is the first symptom in about one-quarter (25%) of people who have a PE.-Among people who have had a DVT, one-half will have long-term complications (post-thrombotic syndrome) such as swelling, pain, discoloration, and scaling in the affected limb.-One-third (about 33%) of people with DVT/PE will have a recurrence within 10 years.-Only 1/3 of the hospitalized patients with risk factors for blood clots received preventive treatment .-Without preventive treatment, Upto 60% patients who undergo total hip replacement surgery may develop D.V.T.-Cancer patients undergoing surgical procedures have at least two times the risk of post operative D.V.T. and greater than three times risk of fatal P.E. than non cancer patients undergoing similar procedure.-In elderly, D.V.T. is associated with 21% one-year mortality rate and P.E. is associated with 39% one-year mortality rate.-P.E. is the leading cause of maternal death associated with childbirths.
A woman’s risk of developing DVT is six times greater when she is pregnant.
.-Evaluation and proper management is essential to decrease the burden of V.T.E.
-While surgical patients seem to draw attention of medical fraternity; it needs to be remembered that non-surgical medical patients are at an equal or at higher risk of developing V.T.
PREDISPOSING FACTORS :
Patient Factors :
-Age> 40 risk increase exponentially with age
-Obesity (BMI > 30 kg/ m2)
-Varicose veins or venous thrombophlebitis
-Oral contraceptives & Hormone replacement therapy ; oestrogen is responsible for D.V.T.
-Pregnancy : due to
(i) Hormonal Changes
(ii) Pressure on veins by fetus
-Highest incidence in puerperium especially just after childbirth
-Dehydration : increase blood viscosity
Immobility : Stasis of blood
Long distance travel : due to (i) Inactivity (ii) Dehydrationdue to these factors blood becomes more sticky specially if journey is for more than 5 hrs.
- Blood disorders
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